4200-SCS Parameter Analyzer
The comprehensive solution for electrical characterization of materials and devices

What is a Keithley 4200-SCS Parameter Analyzer?

The 4200-SCS is a modular, fully integrated parameter analyzer that performs electrical characterization of materials, semiconductor devices and processes. From basic I-V and C-V measurement sweeps to advanced ultra-fast pulsed I-V, waveform capture, and transient I-V measurements, the 4200-SCS provides the researcher or engineer with critical parameters needed for design, development or production.

View Brochure       View Data Sheet      Click on any module below to learn more.


DC I-V measurements are the cornerstone of device and material testing. The 4200-SCS Source Measure Units (SMU) are precision instruments which are used for sourcing current or voltage and simultaneously measuring capturing current measurements and voltage measurements with high accuracy. The 4200-SCS provides a wide range of I-V measurements including: sub-pA leakage measurements, µΩ resistance measurements.

System Software

4200-SCS
Software

Description
Click on any module on the left to learn more
Keithley 4200-SCS Parameter Analyzer Software

4200-SCS Software

The 4200-SCS software provides a unified measurement interface that guides you through complex characterization tests. With over 450 modifiable application tests, the 4200-SCS provides real-time I-V sweeps so you can understand device behavior quickly. Click here to view the brochure or data sheet.

Keithley 4200-SCS Parameter Analyzer Mainframe

4200-SCS Parameter Analyzer Mainframe

The 4200-SCS is a modular, fully integrated parameter analyzer that performs electrical characterization of devices, materials or processes. With nine measurement slots and a built-in low noise ground unit, you can configure it to precisely meet your test requirements or budget constraint. Click here to view the brochure or data sheet.

Medium Power SMU Modules

Keithley Medium Power Source Measure Unit (SMU) Modules

A Source Measure Unit (SMU) can source current or voltage and measure current and voltage with high resolution and accuracy. Each 2 W medium power SMU occupies one instrument slot and up to a total of nine can be installed in the 4200-SCS. The SMU can supply voltage/current and measure voltage/current from 100 fA to 100 mA and from 1 uV to 210 V. A preamplifier can be added to any SMU to extend the current range to 0.1 fA resolution. Click here to view the brochure or data sheet.

High Power SMU Modules

High Power SMU

A Source Measure Unit (SMU) can source current or voltage and measure current and voltage with high resolution and accuracy. Each 20W high power SMU occupies one instrument slot and up to a total of nine can be installed in the 4200-SCS. The SMU can supply voltage/ current and measure voltage/current from 100 fA to 1 A and from 1 uV to 210 V. A preamplifier can be added to any SMU to extend the current range to 0.1 fA resolution. Click here to view the brochure or data sheet.

4200-Preamplifier

Preamplifier Unit

The low current measurement capabilities of any SMU can be extended to 0.1 fA by adding an optional preamplifier. The 4200-PA can be mounted on the back of the 4200-SCS or in a remote location such as the prober platen or light-tight enclosure to eliminate problems due to long cables. Click here to view the brochure or data sheet.

probe

Probe Station

The 4200-SCS can control external equipment such as an automated or semi-automated probe stations, temperature controllers etc. Probe drivers are supplied with the 4200-SCS for select Cascade Microtech, Suss, MicroManipulator and Signatone probe stations. Click here to view the brochure or data sheet.

DUT
Image courtesy of DCG Systems

Device Under Test (DUT)

The 4200-SCS is capable of testing many devices or materials:

  • Semiconductors
  • Nanomaterials
  • Photovoltaics
  • Display Technologies
  • Dielectrics
  • MEMS devices

Capacitance-Voltage (C-V) testing is widely used to determine a variety of semiconductor parameters such as doping concentration and profiles, carrier lifetime, oxide thickness, interface trap density and more. The 4200-SCS provides three C-V methods: Multi-frequency (1 kHz - 10 MHz) C-V, Very Low Frequency (10 mHz - 10 Hz) C-V, and Quasi-static C-V measurements.

System Software

4200-SCS
Software

Description
Click on any module on the left to learn more
4200-SCS Software

4200-SCS Software

4200-SCS software enables you to quickly configure linear or custom C-V, C-f and C-t sweeps with up to 4096 data points. Built-in parameter extraction examples, test libraries and sample programs allow you to understand device behavior quickly. Click here to view the brochure or data sheet.

4200-SCS Software

4200-SCS Parameter Analyzer Mainframe

The 4200-SCS is a modular, fully integrated parameter analyzer that performs electrical characterization of devices, materials or processes. With nine measurement slots and a built-in low noise ground unit, you can configure it to precisely meet your test requirements or budget constraint. Click here to view the brochure or data sheet.

SMU Modules

4200-SMU

SMUs are precision instruments which are used for sourcing current or voltage and simultaneously measuring current and voltage with high accuracy and speed.

Two SMU models are available for use with the 4200-SCS, the 4200-SMU medium power SMU or 4210-SMU high power SMU. Both models occupy only one instrument slot and up to a total of nine can be installed in the 4200-SCS.

Offering the industry’s widest dynamic range, the medium power 4200-SMU operates from 100 nA to 100 mA and 1 uV to 210 V and the high power 4210-SMU operates up to 1 A. The low current measurement capabilities of either SMU can be extended to 0.1 fA resolution by adding an optional preamplifier. Click here to view the brochure or data sheet.

C-V Module

Keithley C-V Measurement Module

The 4200-SCS can be configured to support multi-frequency (1 kHz to 10 MHz) C-V, Very Low Frequency (10 mHz – 10 Hz) C-V, and Quasi-static C-V measurements.

The 4210-CVU multi-frequency C-V module occupies one slot in the 4200-SCS chassis and provides C-V, C-t, and C-f measurement sweeps with up to 4096 data points. Built-in compensation routines remove parasitic effects and ensures the integrity of connections to the DUT. An optional power package allows a DC voltage bias of up to +/- 200 V.

The Very Low Frequency C-Vmethod takes advantage of the low current measurement capability of the 4200-SCS Source Measure units (SMUs) to perform C-V measurements. The Very Low Frequency C-V technique makes it possible to measure very small capacitances at a precise low test frequency. This patent-pending, narrow-band sinusoidal technique allows for low frequency C-V measurements of very high impedance devices, up to >1E15 ohms.

Quasi-static C-V employs a DC measurement technique using two 4200-SCS Source Measure Units (SMUs) with two 4200-PA preamplifiers. The SMUs are used to source a current to charge the capacitor, and then to measure the voltage, time and discharge current. The 4200-SCS software includes test programs and formulas to extract common C-V parameters. Click here to view the 4200-SCS brochure or data sheet.

4200-Preamplifier

Preamplifier Unit

The low current measurement capabilities of any SMU can be extended to 0.1 fA by adding an optional preamplifier. The 4200-PA can be mounted on the back of the 4200-SCS or in a remote location such as the prober platen or light-tight enclosure to eliminate problems due to long cables. Click here to view the brochure or data sheet.

Switch Matrix

Switch Matrix

The six slot Model 707B and the single slot 708B semiconductor switch matrix mainframes gives you the ability to control up to 2,880 channels or matrix crosspoints in real time, making these systems ideal for applications like semiconductor device characterization, wafer level reliability, parallel testing, and modeling. The large matrix capacity (576 and 96 channels) of the mainframes can be increased by connecting up to five mainframes in a master/slave configuration that can be controlled from a single GPIB address. Click here to view the data sheet.

probe

Probe Station

The 4200-SCS can control external equipment such as an automated or semi-automated probe stations, temperature controllers etc. Probe drivers are supplied with the 4200-SCS for select Cascade Microtech, Suss, MicroManipulator and Signatone probe stations. Click here to view the brochure or data sheet.

DUT

Device Under Test (DUT)

The 4200-SCS is capable of testing many devices or materials:

  • MOSCAP & MOSFET structures
  • BJTs & JFETs
  • III-V compound devices
  • Photovoltaic cells
  • MEMs devices
  • Organic TFT displays
  • Carbon nanotubes

Pulsed I-V testing is ideal for preventing device self-heating or minimizing charge trapping effects when characterizing devices. By using narrow pulses and/or low duty cycle pulses rather than DC signals, important parameters are extracted while maintaining the DUT performance. Transient I-V measurements allow scientists and engineers to capture ultra high speed current or voltage waveforms in the time domain in order to study dynamic properties.

System Software

4200-SCS
Software

Description
Click on any module on the left to learn more
4200-SCS Software

4200-SCS Software

Ultra-fast I-V sourcing and measuring is made easy with the 4200-SCS software. With the Ultra-Fast I-V instrument module, three types of pulse testing are easily performed: Pulsed I-V, Transient I-V and Pulsed Sourcing or also called Segmented Arbitrary (Seg. Arb.) Waveform. The 4200-SCS includes many application tests that facilitate rapid startup and allows you to understand device behavior quickly. Click here to view the brochure or data sheet.

Keithley 4200-SCS Parameter Anazlyer for current, c-v and pulse measurements

4200-SCS Parameter Analyzer Mainframe

The 4200-SCS is a modular, fully integrated parameter analyzer that performs electrical characterization of devices, materials or processes. With nine measurement slots and a built-in low noise ground unit, you can configure it to precisely meet your test requirements or budget constraint. Click here to view the brochure or data sheet.

SMU Modules

4200-SMU

SMUs are precision instruments which are used for sourcing current or voltage and simultaneously measuring current and voltage with high accuracy and speed.

Two SMU models are available for use with the 4200-SCS, the 4200-SMU medium power SMU or 4210-SMU high power SMU. Both models occupy only one instrument slot and up to a total of nine can be installed in the 4200-SCS.

Offering the industry’s widest dynamic range, the medium power 4200-SMU operates from 100 nA to 100 mA and 1 uV to 210 V and the high power 4210-SMU operates up to 1 A. The low current measurement capabilities of either SMU can be extended to 0.1 fA resolution by adding an optional preamplifier. Click here to view the brochure or data sheet.

C-V Module

Keithley C-V Measurement Module

The 4200-SCS can be configured to support multi-frequency (1 kHz to 10 MHz) C-V, Very Low Frequency (10 mHz – 10 Hz) C-V, and Quasi-static C-V measurements.

The 4210-CVU multi-frequency C-V module occupies one slot in the 4200-SCS chassis and provides C-V, C-t, and C-f measurement sweeps with up to 4096 data points. Built-in compensation routines remove parasitic effects and ensures the integrity of connections to the DUT. An optional power package allows a DC voltage bias of up to +/- 200 V.

The Very Low Frequency C-Vmethod takes advantage of the low current measurement capability of the 4200-SCS Source Measure units (SMUs) to perform C-V measurements. The Very Low Frequency C-V technique makes it possible to measure very small capacitances at a precise low test frequency. This patent-pending, narrow-band sinusoidal technique allows for low frequency C-V measurements of very high impedance devices, up to >1E15 ohms.

Quasi-static C-V employs a DC measurement technique using two 4200-SCS Source Measure Units (SMUs) with two 4200-PA preamplifiers. The SMUs are used to source a current to charge the capacitor, and then to measure the voltage, time and discharge current. The 4200-SCS software includes test programs and formulas to extract common C-V parameters. Click here to view the 4200-SCS brochure or data sheet.

Ultra-Fast I-V Modules

UltraFast IV

Each Model 4225-PMU module provides two channels of integrated sourcing and measurement but occupies only a single slot in the Model 4200-SCS's nine-slot chassis. Unlike competitive solutions, each channel of the Model 4225-PMU combines high speed voltage outputs (with pulse widths ranging from 60 nanoseconds to DC) with simultaneous current and voltage measurements. Each 4200-SCS chassis can accommodate up to six Model 4225-PMU modules, for a maximum of twelve ultra-fast source and measure channels.

The Model 4225-PMU can be used to perform three types of ultra-fast I-V tests: Pulsed I-V, Transient I-V, and Pulsed Sourcing. Pulse and transient measurements add a time domain dimension to your analysis and allows for dynamic characteristics to be explored. Using pulsed I-V signals to characterize devices rather than DC signals makes it possible to study or reduce the effects of self-heating or minimize current drift due to trapped charge. Pulsed sourcing can also be used to stress test a device during reliability cycling or program & erase memory devices. Click here to view the brochure or data sheet or E-Handbook.

Remote Amplifier Switch Units

Remote Amplifier/Switch Units

The low current measurement capabilities of the Ultra-fast I-V module can be extended by adding the 4225-RPM. Additionally, the RPM acts as a multiplex switch, allowing you to automatically switch between SMUs, C-V or Ultra-fast I-V modules. Click here to view the data sheet.

mmpc

MMPC Cables

One of the most difficult problems when making I-V, C-V and Pulsed I-V measurements is that the cables required for each measurement type are fundamentally different. Guarding is necessary to achieve low current I-V measurements, which makes triaxial cables necessary. C-V measurements use four coaxial cables with the outer shells connected together. Pulsed measurements require the highest bandwidth of the three measurement types, so the cable must have a characteristic impedance that matches the source impedance to prevent reflections. Multi-Measurement Performance Cables (MMPC) simplifies switching between DC I-V, C-V, and pulsed I-V testing configurations. No matter what type of measurement is being made, you won’t have to change the probe manipulator cabling—just move the cables from one instrument module to another. In addition, you can change the setup while the probe needles stay in contact with a wafer, reducing pad damage and maintaining the same contact impedance for all three types of measurements. MMPC Cables are available for select Cascade Microtech, Suss, Lucas Signatone and Wentworth probe stations. Click here for more information.

probe

Probe Station

The 4200-SCS can control external equipment such as an automated or semi-automated probe stations, temperature controllers etc. Probe drivers are supplied with the 4200-SCS for select Cascade Microtech, Suss, MicroManipulator and Signatone probe stations. Click here to view the brochure or data sheet.

DUT

Device Under Test (DUT)

The 4200-SCS is capable of testing many cutting-edge devices or materials such as:

  • Compound semiconductors
  • CMOS devices
  • Non-volatile memory devices (flash, PCRAM, etc.)
  • Nanotechnology and MEMs
  • AC stress and reliability testing,
  • Organic TFT displays
  • Solar cell testing

Maintaining the quality and reliability of gate oxides of MOS structures is a critical task in a semiconductor fab. Capacitance-Voltage (C-V) measurements are commonly used in studying gate-oxide quality in detail. The 4200-SCS equipped with a C-V instrument module can simplify testing and analysis of MOS capacitor measurements. Common measurement parameters such as oxide thickness, flatband voltage, and threshold voltage etc. are included with the 4200-SCS.

Description
Click on any module on the left to learn more
4200-SCS Software

4200-SCS Software

4200-SCS software enables you to quickly configure linear or custom C-V, C-f and C-t sweeps with up to 4096 data points. Built-in parameter extraction examples, test libraries and sample programs allow you to easily extract common measurement parameters such as oxide thickness, flat-band voltage, doping concentration etc. With Keithley’s built-in Confidence Check diagnostic tool, you can check the integrity of open and short connections and connections to your DUT. Click here to view the brochure or data sheet.

4200-SCS Software

Oxide Thickness

The oxide capacitance (COX) is the high frequency capacitance when the device is biased for strong accumulation. In the strong accumulation region, the MOSFET acts like a parallel-plate capacitor and the oxide thickness (TOX) may be calculated from (COX) and the gate area. The 4200-SCS easily extracts these parameters from C-V measurements and displays the results. See our Application Note for more information.

Gate Param

Flatband Voltage & Capacitance

Application of a certain gate voltage, the flatband voltage (VFB), results in the disappearance of band bending. At this point, known as the flatband condition, the semiconductor band is said to become flat. Flatband voltage and its shift are widely used to extract other device parameters, such as oxide charges. One method to determine VFB is to use the flatband capacitance method. The ideal value of the flatband capacitance (CFB) is calculated from the oxide capacitance and the Debye length. Once the value of CFB is known, the value of VFB can be obtained from the C V curve data. These parameters are quickly derived and displayed using the user-modifiable projects included with the 4200-SCS parameter analyzer. See our Application Note for more information.

Gate Param

Threshold Voltage

The turn-on region for a MOSFET corresponds to the inversion region on its
C V plot. When a MOSFET is turned on, the channel formed corresponds to strong generation of inversion charges. It is these inversion charges that conduct current. The threshold voltage (VTH) is the point on the
C V curve where the surface potential (φS) equals twice the bulk potential (φB). This curve point corresponds to the onset of strong inversion. For an enhancement-mode MOSFET, VTH corresponds to the point where the device begins to conduct. The VTH parameter is quickly derived and displayed using the user-modifiable projects included with the 4200-SCS parameter analyzer. See our Application Note for more information.

Gate Param

Bulk Oxide Charge

The effective oxide charge (QEFF) represents the sum of oxide fixed charge (QF), mobile ionic charge (QM), and oxide trapped charge (QOT):
QEFF = QF + QM + QOT

Simple measurements of oxide charge using C V measurements do not distinguish the three components of QEFF. These three components can be distinguished from one another by temperature cycling. See our Application Note for more information. See our Application Note for more information.

Doping Profile

Doping concentration

The doping profile of the device is derived from the C V curve based on the definition of the differential capacitance as the differential change in depletion region charges produced by a differential change in gate voltage. The CVU_MOScap project included in the 4200-SCS computes the depletion depth (w) from the high frequency capacitance and oxide capaci-tance at each measured value of the gate voltage (VG). Once the doping concentration and depletion depth are derived, the 4200-SCS plots the doping profile. See our Application Note for more information.

Mobile Ions

Mobile Ions

The C-V method is one of the more common ways to measure mobile ion concentration. The first step is to measure a high-frequency C-V curve on a MOS capacitor fabricated on the sample wafer. After this measurement, a bias voltage is applied to the MOS capacitor, and the wafer is heated to increase the mobility of the mobile ions. In typical tests, the bias voltage is selected to cause a 106 V/cm field in the oxide with a temperature between 200° –300° C. The wafer is held at these voltage and temperature conditions for a few minutes. After the sample is returned to 23° C (to “freeze” the ionic charges in place), the bias voltage is removed, and another C-V measurement is taken. By comparing the flatband voltage before and after the stress, the mobile ion concentration can be calculated. See our Application Note for more information.

4200-SCS Software

4200-SCS Parameter Analyzer Mainframe

The 4200-SCS is a modular, fully integrated parameter analyzer that performs electrical characterization of devices, materials or processes. With nine measurement slots and a built-in low noise ground unit, you can configure it to precisely meet your test requirements or budget constraint. Click here to view the brochure or data sheet.

SMU Modules

4200-SMU

SMUs are precision instruments which are used for sourcing current or voltage and simultaneously measuring current and voltage with high accuracy and speed.

Two SMU models are available for use with the 4200-SCS, the 4200-SMU medium power SMU or 4210-SMU high power SMU. Both models occupy only one instrument slot and up to a total of nine can be installed in the 4200-SCS.

Offering the industry’s widest dynamic range, the medium power 4200-SMU operates from 100 nA to 100 mA and 1 uV to 210 V and the high power 4210-SMU operates up to 1 A. The low current measurement capabilities of either SMU can be extended to 0.1 fA resolution by adding an optional preamplifier. Click here to view the brochure or data sheet.

C-V Module

Keithley C-V Measurement Module

The 4200-SCS can be configured to support multi-frequency (1 kHz to 10 MHz) C-V, Very Low Frequency (10 mHz – 10 Hz) C-V, and Quasi-static C-V measurements.

The 4210-CVU multi-frequency C-V module occupies one slot in the 4200-SCS chassis and provides C-V, C-t, and C-f measurement sweeps with up to 4096 data points. Built-in compensation routines remove parasitic effects and ensures the integrity of connections to the DUT. An optional power package allows a DC voltage bias of up to +/- 200 V.

The Very Low Frequency C-Vmethod takes advantage of the low current measurement capability of the 4200-SCS Source Measure units (SMUs) to perform C-V measurements. The Very Low Frequency C-V technique makes it possible to measure very small capacitances at a precise low test frequency. This patent-pending, narrow-band sinusoidal technique allows for low frequency C-V measurements of very high impedance devices, up to >1E15 ohms.

Quasi-static C-V employs a DC measurement technique using two 4200-SCS Source Measure Units (SMUs) with two 4200-PA preamplifiers. The SMUs are used to source a current to charge the capacitor, and then to measure the voltage, time and discharge current. The 4200-SCS software includes test programs and formulas to extract common C-V parameters. Click here to view the 4200-SCS brochure or data sheet.

4200-Preamplifier

Preamplifier Unit

The low current measurement capabilities of any SMU can be extended to 0.1 fA by adding an optional preamplifier. The 4200-PA can be mounted on the back of the 4200-SCS or in a remote location such as the prober platen or light-tight enclosure to eliminate problems due to long cables. Click here to view the brochure or data sheet.

probe

Probe Station

The 4200-SCS can control external equipment such as an automated or semi-automated probe stations, temperature controllers etc. Probe drivers are supplied with the 4200-SCS for select Cascade Microtech, Suss, MicroManipulator and Signatone probe stations. Click here to view the brochure or data sheet.

DUT

Device Under Test (DUT)

The 4200-SCS is capable of testing many devices or materials:

  • MOSFET
  • MOSCAP

Stress-measure testing is commonly used to evaluate operating lifetimes and wear-out failure mechanisms of semiconductor devices. Common WLR tests include Hot Carrier Injection (HCI) or Channel Hot Carrier (CHC), Negative Bias Temperature Instability (NBTI) and Time Dependent Dielectric Breakdown (TDDB). Such data are used to evaluate device designs and monitor manufacturing processes.

Description
Click on any module on the left to learn more
4200-SCS Software

4200-SCS Software

Keithley Instruments has long been an industry leader in both overall parametric test technology and Wafer Level Reliability (WLR) testing. The 4200-SCS software provides a unified measurement interface that guides you through these complex characterization tests so you can understand device behavior quickly. When equipped with the Model 4200-BTI-A Ultra-Fast BTI Package, the Model 4200-SCS parameter analyzer offers the industry’s most advanced NBTI/PBTI test capabilities:

  • Best-in-class test speed allows faster, more complete device characterization
  • Begin measuring BTI degradation as soon as 30ns after stress is removed
  • Measure transistor VT in less than 1μs using ID–VG sweep method

Click here to view the brochure or data sheet.

Hot Carrier

Hot Carrier Injection

Hot carrier damage occurs in MOS devices when carriers (electrons or holes) are accelerated in the channel. In short channel devices, these electrons/holes attain velocities high enough to cause impact ionization. Impact ionization, in turn, creates extra carriers in the MOS channel. These extra carriers result in significant substrate currents and in some cases attain high enough energy to overcome the semiconductor-oxide barrier and are trapped in the oxide. These trapped channel electrons can cause significant device performance asymmetry and shifts in critical device parameters such as threshold voltage and device drive current. There are a number of Model 4200-SCS project plans for HCI testing: three HCI tests, one electromigration test, and two charge-to-breakdown (Qbd) tests on gate dielectrics using J-ramp and V-ramp methods that follows JEDEC Standard 35-A.

NBTI

NBTI

NBTI is a phenomenon where change in the gate-channel interface causes degradation in pMOS device performance. The degradation is typically tracked as the increase of the transistor threshold voltage (VT) and degradation of the drain current (ID). This degradation can reduce yield through failures during burn-in or in the field. The 4200-SCS NBTI test application will monitor and report parameters between two successive stresses including IDoff, IDon, IG, VT, and Gm.

NBTI

Ultra-Fast NBTI

Bias temperature instability is a highly dynamic phenomenon that requires ultra-fast and sensitive measurements for accurate characterization. The Model 4200-BTI-A Ultra-Fast BTI package brings together the measurement capabilities of the Ultra-Fast I-V module and Remote Amplifier/Switch through an intuitive interface that doesn’t compromise test flexibility. The package, which is engineered to provide optimal ultra-fast results without the use of RF structures and interconnects, includes all the hardware and software needed to make the most sophisticated NBTI and PBTI measurements on leading-edge silicon CMOS technology:

  • Model 4225-PMU Ultra-Fast I-V Module
  • Two Model 4225-RPM Remote Amplifier/Switches
  • ACS Software
  • Ultra-Fast BTI Test Project Module
  • All necessary cabling

The 4200-BTI-A package makes it easy to define stress timing, stress conditions, and a wide range of measurement sequences from spot I, On-The-Fly (OTF), or ID-VG sweeps.

Charge Pumping

Charge Pumping

Charge pumping (CP) is a well-known measurement technique for analyzing the semiconductor–dielectric interface of MOS structures. Important information about the quality and degradation of a device can be extracted from charge pumping current (ICP) measurement results, including the interface trap density and the mean capture cross section. Pulsing a gate voltage and measuring a DC substrate current simultaneously is the basis for the various charge pumping methods, so a pulse generator and sensitive DC ammeter are required to make these measurements.

The Model 4200-SCS offers a complete solution for charge pumping measurements. The application test modules use the Model 4200-SMU to measure the charge pumping current (ICP), and the gate is pulsed using the Models 4225-PMU. Click here to view the Application Note.

Keithley 4200-SCS Parameter Anazlyer for current, c-v and pulse measurements

4200-SCS Parameter Analyzer Mainframe

The 4200-SCS is a modular, fully integrated parameter analyzer that performs electrical characterization of devices, materials or processes. With nine measurement slots and a built-in low noise ground unit, you can configure it to precisely meet your test requirements or budget constraint. Click here to view the brochure or data sheet.

Ultra-Fast I-V Modules

UltraFast IV

Each Model 4225-PMU module provides two channels of integrated sourcing and measurement but occupies only a single slot in the Model 4200-SCS's nine-slot chassis. Unlike competitive solutions, each channel of the Model 4225-PMU combines high speed voltage outputs (with pulse widths ranging from 60 nanoseconds to DC) with simultaneous current and voltage measurements. Each 4200-SCS chassis can accommodate up to six Model 4225-PMU modules, for a maximum of twelve ultra-fast source and measure channels.

The Model 4225-PMU can be used to perform three types of ultra-fast I-V tests: Pulsed I-V, Transient I-V, and Pulsed Sourcing. Pulse and transient measurements add a time domain dimension to your analysis and allows for dynamic characteristics to be explored. Using pulsed I-V signals to characterize devices rather than DC signals makes it possible to study or reduce the effects of self-heating or minimize current drift due to trapped charge. Pulsed sourcing can also be used to stress test a device during reliability cycling or program & erase memory devices. Click here to view the brochure or data sheet or E-Handbook.

SMU Modules

4200-SMU

SMUs are precision instruments which are used for sourcing current or voltage and simultaneously measuring current and voltage with high accuracy and speed.

Two SMU models are available for use with the 4200-SCS, the 4200-SMU medium power SMU or 4210-SMU high power SMU. Both models occupy only one instrument slot and up to a total of nine can be installed in the 4200-SCS.

Offering the industry’s widest dynamic range, the medium power 4200-SMU operates from 100 nA to 100 mA and 1 uV to 210 V and the high power 4210-SMU operates up to 1 A. The low current measurement capabilities of either SMU can be extended to 0.1 fA resolution by adding an optional preamplifier. Click here to view the brochure or data sheet.

Remote Amplifier Switch Units

Remote Amplifier/Switch Units

The low current measurement capabilities of the Ultra-fast I-V module can be extended by adding the 4225-RPM. Additionally, the RPM acts as a multiplex switch, allowing you to automatically switch between SMUs, C-V or Ultra-fast I-V modules. Click here to view the data sheet.

Switch Matrix

Switch Matrix

The six slot Model 707B and the single slot 708B semiconductor switch matrix mainframes gives you the ability to control up to 2,880 channels or matrix crosspoints in real time, making these systems ideal for applications like semiconductor device characterization, wafer level reliability, parallel testing, and modeling. The large matrix capacity (576 and 96 channels) of the mainframes can be increased by connecting up to five mainframes in a master/slave configuration that can be controlled from a single GPIB address. Click here to view the data sheet.

mmpc

MMPC Cables

One of the most difficult problems when making I-V, C-V and Pulsed I-V measurements is that the cables required for each measurement type are fundamentally different. Guarding is necessary to achieve low current I-V measurements, which makes triaxial cables necessary. C-V measurements use four coaxial cables with the outer shells connected together. Pulsed measurements require the highest bandwidth of the three measurement types, so the cable must have a characteristic impedance that matches the source impedance to prevent reflections. Multi-Measurement Performance Cables (MMPC) simplifies switching between DC I-V, C-V, and pulsed I-V testing configurations. No matter what type of measurement is being made, you won’t have to change the probe manipulator cabling—just move the cables from one instrument module to another. In addition, you can change the setup while the probe needles stay in contact with a wafer, reducing pad damage and maintaining the same contact impedance for all three types of measurements. MMPC Cables are available for select Cascade Microtech, Suss, Lucas Signatone and Wentworth probe stations. Click here for more information.

probe

Probe Station

The 4200-SCS can control external equipment such as an automated or semi-automated probe stations, temperature controllers etc. Probe drivers are supplied with the 4200-SCS for select Cascade Microtech, Suss, MicroManipulator and Signatone probe stations. Click here to view the brochure or data sheet.

DUT

Device Under Test (DUT)

The 4200-SCS is capable of testing many cutting-edge devices or materials such as:

  • PMOS FETs
  • NMOS FETs
  • Reliability Test Structures

With the Ultra-Fast I-V module's multi-pulse waveform generation and measurement capability, the 4200-SCS is specifically designed to meet the challenges posed by cutting-edge non-volatile memory devices. The powerful features shown below allow you to meet nearly any NVM cell testing need.

Description
Click on any module on the left to learn more
4200-SCS Software

4200-SCS Software

The 4200-SCS software provides a unified measurement interface that guides you through complex characterization tests. Example non-volatile memory projects are included for many memory types so you can set up and execute tests quickly, as well as to analyze the data. The 4200-SCS provides real-time I-V, C-V and Pulse measurements so you can understand device behavior quickly.

Click here to view the brochure or data sheet.

Floating Gate

Floating Gate Flash

Flash memory characterization consists of determining values for voltage pulse height, pulse width for the memory device’s program and erase states. The 4200-SCS KITE software provides NAND or NOR cell application tests that measure Vt of the flash memory transistor, endurance tests and program/erase tests.

Phase Change

Phase-change Memory

Through application of heat in the form of an electrical pulse, phase-change memory cells can be switched rapidly from a low to high resistance state. The challenge to testing a new or unknown cell is to determine the appropriate pulse parameters for RESET and SET pulses. The 4200-SCS KITE software provides application tests that provides RESET and SET pulses, I-V curves, R-I curves and endurance testing.

Ferro-electric Memory

Ferro-electric Memory

FeRAM memory mechanism is based on a polarization shift in ferro-electric materials. The challenge of characterizing the FeRAM is the switching of states requires the polarization charge to be measured as it changes. The 4200-SCS solution measures the voltage and currently directly and simultaneously so that the total charge can be determined. The 4200-SCS provides FeRAM application tests for PUND waveform generation and measurement, FeRAM hysteresis curve and endurance testing.

RE RAM

ReRAM Memory

ReRAM memory mechanism is based on the idea that a dielectric, which is normally insulating, can be made to conduct through a filament or conduction path formed after application of a sufficiently high voltage. Once the filament is formed, it may be reset or set by an appropriately applied voltage. ReRAM is typically tested in the DC realm using SMU instruments, but SMUs may not be the best instruments. In traditional ReRAM test setups, to create, or form, the low resistance state initially, SMU current compliance is used to limit the maximum current flowing through the test device during the forming or reset operation. However, the compliance circuit in an SMU is not instantaneous, and takes microseconds to milliseconds to engage fully. Pulse I-V characterization improves ReRAM testing by providing strict timing control of the voltage signal applied to the test device. ReRAM tests that are included in the 4200-SCS are:

  • Characterization
  • Forming
  • Butterfly Curve
  • ReRAM Endurance
Keithley 4200-SCS Parameter Anazlyer for current, c-v and pulse measurements

4200-SCS Parameter Analyzer Mainframe

The 4200-SCS is a modular, fully integrated parameter analyzer that performs electrical characterization of devices, materials or processes. With nine measurement slots and a built-in low noise ground unit, you can configure it to precisely meet your test requirements or budget constraint. Click here to view the brochure or data sheet.

Ultra-Fast I-V Modules

UltraFast IV

Each Model 4225-PMU module provides two channels of integrated sourcing and measurement but occupies only a single slot in the Model 4200-SCS's nine-slot chassis. Unlike competitive solutions, each channel of the Model 4225-PMU combines high speed voltage outputs (with pulse widths ranging from 60 nanoseconds to DC) with simultaneous current and voltage measurements. Each 4200-SCS chassis can accommodate up to six Model 4225-PMU modules, for a maximum of twelve ultra-fast source and measure channels.

The Model 4225-PMU can be used to perform three types of ultra-fast I-V tests: Pulsed I-V, Transient I-V, and Pulsed Sourcing. Pulse and transient measurements add a time domain dimension to your analysis and allows for dynamic characteristics to be explored. Using pulsed I-V signals to characterize devices rather than DC signals makes it possible to study or reduce the effects of self-heating or minimize current drift due to trapped charge. Pulsed sourcing can also be used to stress test a device during reliability cycling or program & erase memory devices. Click here to view the brochure or data sheet or E-Handbook.

SMU Modules

4200-SMU

SMUs are precision instruments which are used for sourcing current or voltage and simultaneously measuring current and voltage with high accuracy and speed.

Two SMU models are available for use with the 4200-SCS, the 4200-SMU medium power SMU or 4210-SMU high power SMU. Both models occupy only one instrument slot and up to a total of nine can be installed in the 4200-SCS.

Offering the industry’s widest dynamic range, the medium power 4200-SMU operates from 100 nA to 100 mA and 1 uV to 210 V and the high power 4210-SMU operates up to 1 A. The low current measurement capabilities of either SMU can be extended to 0.1 fA resolution by adding an optional preamplifier. Click here to view the brochure or data sheet.

Remote Amplifier Switch Units

Remote Amplifier/Switch Units

The low current measurement capabilities of the Ultra-fast I-V module can be extended by adding the 4225-RPM. Additionally, the RPM acts as a multiplex switch, allowing you to automatically switch between SMUs, C-V or Ultra-fast I-V modules. Click here to view the data sheet.

mmpc

MMPC Cables

One of the most difficult problems when making I-V, C-V and Pulsed I-V measurements is that the cables required for each measurement type are fundamentally different. Guarding is necessary to achieve low current I-V measurements, which makes triaxial cables necessary. C-V measurements use four coaxial cables with the outer shells connected together. Pulsed measurements require the highest bandwidth of the three measurement types, so the cable must have a characteristic impedance that matches the source impedance to prevent reflections. Multi-Measurement Performance Cables (MMPC) simplifies switching between DC I-V, C-V, and pulsed I-V testing configurations. No matter what type of measurement is being made, you won’t have to change the probe manipulator cabling—just move the cables from one instrument module to another. In addition, you can change the setup while the probe needles stay in contact with a wafer, reducing pad damage and maintaining the same contact impedance for all three types of measurements. MMPC Cables are available for select Cascade Microtech, Suss, Lucas Signatone and Wentworth probe stations. Click here for more information.

probe

Probe Station

The 4200-SCS can control external equipment such as an automated or semi-automated probe stations, temperature controllers etc. Probe drivers are supplied with the 4200-SCS for select Cascade Microtech, Suss, MicroManipulator and Signatone probe stations. Click here to view the brochure or data sheet.

DUT

Device Under Test (DUT)

The 4200-SCS is capable of testing many types of non-volatile memory devices such as:

  • Floating Gate Flash
  • PRAM
  • FeRAM
  • ReRAM
  • CBRAM
  • CNT RAM

Nanotechnology research works with matter at the molecular level, atom by atom, to create structures with fundamentally new properties. Research today includes devices that utilize carbon nano tubes, semiconductor nanowires, molecular organic-based electronics, and single-electron devices. These devices can't be tested using standard test techniques due to the physical size of the devices. The 4200-SCS Parameter Analyzer provides an extensive library of application tests to enable you to test quickly and with confidence.

Description
Click on any module on the left to learn more
4200-SCS Software

4200-SCS Software

Like testing of other engineered materials, measurements made on substances created with nanotechnology are aimed at discovering useful properties. The nature of nanotech materials requires some novel testing techniques.

The Model 4200-SCS is supplied with application tests specifically designed for the dynamic field of nano scale electrical characterization. For researchers not familiar with all the nuances of electrical characterization, this test project assists in the rapid and accurate measurement of structures without having to spend lots of time learning how to set up the hardware. This nano test project includes tests for I-V, pulsed and transient I-V, and C-V measurements.

Nanotube Transistors source: Wikipedia File:Wiki6.jpg
Images Source: Wikipedia - File:Wiki6.jpg

Carbon Nanotube Transistors

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have unique properties that make them good candidates for a variety of electronic devices. They can have either the electrical conductivity of metals or act as a semiconductor. Characterizing the electrical properties of delicate nanoelectronic devices requires instruments and measurement techniques optimized for low power levels and high measurement sensitivity. The 4200-SCS is supplied with a test project for making some of the most commonly used CNT FET measurements. This test project includes tests for I-V, pulsed and transient I-V, and C-V measurements.

Graphene

Graphene

Graphene, the single-atom-thick crystal of carbon, has outstanding electrical conductivity. It also has extremely strong, yet flexible bonds. Its hardness is greater than the hardness of diamond. For the semiconductor industry, the exciting thing about graphene is that electrons travel through it unimpeded, and these electrons behave according to quantum electrodynamic principles. Carrier mobilities through graphene are on the order of 10,000cm2/V-s at room temperature, and mobility values as high as 200,000 cm2/V-s on suspended samples of graphene have been reported. Graphene’s high mobility has already led to the development of very high frequency (100GHz and higher) RF transistors.

For graphene or a graphene-based material to replace silicon, it must have a bandgap so that a FET channel can be turned on and off. A precision SMU found in the 4200-SCS analyzer is needed to modulate the substrate or “gate” voltage to characterize the sample’s performance across a range of gate voltages.

MEMS

MEMS

MEMS devices are miniature electromechanical sensors and actuators fabricated using VLSI processing techniques. Typical sizes for MEMS devices range from nanometers to millimeters (100 nm to 1000 μm).

Testing MEMS elements in the earliest stages of the manufacturing process can help contribute to lowering production cost. In particular, testing MEMS at the on-wafer or die level is critical for lowering mass production cost. C-V and Pulse I-V are common measurement techniques to evaluate the performance of a MEM. In particular, capacitive sensors have hysteresis characteristics based on the amount of electrical charge being inducted to the electrodes. This hysteresis is one of the parameters that can be evaluated by a C-V measurement.

Nanotubes
Image reproduced courtesy of DCG Systems

Nanowires

Unlike general-purpose measurements and I-V curve generation on macro- and micro-scale components and materials, measurements on molecular wires require special care and techniques. When the resistance to be measured is relatively low or when the resistance of the probes or the contacts is relatively high, a four-point probe will yield more accurate results. This is easily accomplished with the 4200-SCS source measure units.

C-V measurements on semiconductor nanowires and nanowire-based devices can be used to derive important characteristics about the device, including mobility, carrier density, and device speed. Sometimes the capacitance is plotted as a function of channel length or gate length. These capacitance measurements can often be quite small, <1pF. As a result, using proper techniques to reduce parasitic capacitance from affecting measurement accuracy is important. The two test modules supplied with the 4200-SCS perform C-V sweeps on a two-terminal nanowire device. Both tests are similar, but use different drive frequencies. Capacitance versus voltage graphs are generated by the tests.

Keithley 4200-SCS Parameter Analyzer Mainframe

4200-SCS Parameter Analyzer Mainframe

The 4200-SCS is a modular, fully integrated parameter analyzer that performs electrical characterization of devices, materials or processes. With nine measurement slots and a built-in low noise ground unit, you can configure it to precisely meet your test requirements or budget constraint. Click here to view the brochure or data sheet or E-Handbook.

SMU Modules

4200-SMU

SMUs are precision instruments which are used for sourcing current or voltage and simultaneously measuring current and voltage with high accuracy and speed.

Two SMU models are available for use with the 4200-SCS, the 4200-SMU medium power SMU or 4210-SMU high power SMU. Both models occupy only one instrument slot and up to a total of nine can be installed in the 4200-SCS.

Offering the industry’s widest dynamic range, the medium power 4200-SMU operates from 100 nA to 100 mA and 1 uV to 210 V and the high power 4210-SMU operates up to 1 A. The low current measurement capabilities of either SMU can be extended to 0.1 fA resolution by adding an optional preamplifier. Click here to view the brochure or data sheet.

C-V Module

Keithley C-V Measurement Module

The 4200-SCS can be configured to support multi-frequency (1 kHz to 10 MHz) C-V, Very Low Frequency (10 mHz – 10 Hz) C-V, and Quasi-static C-V measurements.

The 4210-CVU multi-frequency C-V module occupies one slot in the 4200-SCS chassis and provides C-V, C-t, and C-f measurement sweeps with up to 4096 data points. Built-in compensation routines remove parasitic effects and ensures the integrity of connections to the DUT. An optional power package allows a DC voltage bias of up to +/- 200 V.

The Very Low Frequency C-Vmethod takes advantage of the low current measurement capability of the 4200-SCS Source Measure units (SMUs) to perform C-V measurements. The Very Low Frequency C-V technique makes it possible to measure very small capacitances at a precise low test frequency. This patent-pending, narrow-band sinusoidal technique allows for low frequency C-V measurements of very high impedance devices, up to >1E15 ohms.

Quasi-static C-V employs a DC measurement technique using two 4200-SCS Source Measure Units (SMUs) with two 4200-PA preamplifiers. The SMUs are used to source a current to charge the capacitor, and then to measure the voltage, time and discharge current. The 4200-SCS software includes test programs and formulas to extract common C-V parameters. Click here to view the 4200-SCS brochure or data sheet.

Remote Amplifier Switch Units

Remote Amplifier/Switch Units

The low current measurement capabilities of the Ultra-fast I-V module can be extended by adding the 4225-RPM. Additionally, the RPM acts as a multiplex switch, allowing you to automatically switch between SMUs, C-V or Ultra-fast I-V modules. Click here to view the data sheet.

Ultra-Fast I-V Modules

UltraFast IV

A possible source of error in nano research is self-heating due to excessive electrical current through the DUT. Such currents may even lead to catastrophic failure of the sample.

Each Model 4225-PMU module provides two channels of integrated sourcing and measurement but occupies only a single slot in the Model 4200-SCS's nine-slot chassis. Unlike competitive solutions, each channel of the Model 4225-PMU combines high speed voltage outputs (with pulse widths ranging from 60 nanoseconds to DC) with simultaneous current and voltage measurements. Each 4200-SCS chassis can accommodate up to six Model 4225-PMU modules, for a maximum of twelve ultra-fast source and measure channels.

The Model 4225-PMU can be used to perform three types of ultra-fast I-V tests: pulsed I-V, transient I-V, and pulsed sourcing. Pulse and transient measurements add a time domain dimension to your analysis and allows for dynamic characteristics to be explored. Using pulsed I-V signals to characterize devices rather than DC signals makes it possible to study or reduce the effects of self-heating or minimize current drift due to trapped charge. Pulsed sourcing can also be used to stress test a device during reliability cycling or program & erase memory devices. Click here to view the brochure or data sheet or E-Handbook.

mmpc

MMPC Cables

One of the most difficult problems when making I-V, C-V and Pulsed I-V measurements is that the cables required for each measurement type are fundamentally different. Guarding is necessary to achieve low current I-V measurements, which makes triaxial cables necessary. C-V measurements use four coaxial cables with the outer shells connected together. Pulsed measurements require the highest bandwidth of the three measurement types, so the cable must have a characteristic impedance that matches the source impedance to prevent reflections. Multi-Measurement Performance Cables (MMPC) simplifies switching between DC I-V, C-V, and pulsed I-V testing configurations. No matter what type of measurement is being made, you won’t have to change the probe manipulator cabling—just move the cables from one instrument module to another. In addition, you can change the setup while the probe needles stay in contact with a wafer, reducing pad damage and maintaining the same contact impedance for all three types of measurements. MMPC Cables are available for select Cascade Microtech, Suss, Lucas Signatone and Wentworth probe stations. Click here for more information.

probe
Image courtesy of DCG Systems

Probe Station

An alternative approach to a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is a nano-prober that makes low resistance contact to the nanoparticle or DUT. Click here to view the brochure or data sheet.

DUT

Device Under Test (DUT)

The 4200-SCS is capable of testing many types of non-volatile memory devices such as:

  • Carbon Nanotube FETs
  • Graphene devices
  • MEMS
  • Nanowires
  • TFT
  • FinFETs
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